• Mohd Yusoff Hasim Penang State Health Department, 37th floor, KOMTAR, 10590 Penang
  • Rokiah Mohd Port Health Office, Penang
  • Rafidah Md Noor Seberang Perai Selatan, District Health Office Penang
  • Azizah Abd. Manan Penang State Health Department, 37th floor, KOMTAR, 10590 Penang
  • Abd. Jamil Ahmad Health Clinic Bayan Lepas, Bayan Lepas, Penang
  • Munshi Abdullah Penang Hospital
  • Yasmin Sulaiman Penang State Health Department, 37th floor, KOMTAR, 10590 Penang
  • Azmi Shapie Penang State Health Department, 37th floor, KOMTAR, 10590 Penang



Penang Malaysia, pregnant mothers, prevalence of smoking


Health impact related to smoking is a critical public health predicament especially in pregnancy. However there is not much data available to describe the magnitude of the problem. Hence this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its socioeconomic factors among antenatal mother and their opinion related to tobacco control measures. A cross sectional study was carried out involving newly registered antenatal mothers attending all government health clinics in Penang. Prevalence of ever smoking among antenatal mother is 1.4%, of which 42.4% is still smoking at first antenatal visit. It was found that single mothers are more likely to smoke (OR, 14.23: Cl 2.52-53.27). It was also noted that spouse smoking (OR, 5.14: CI 1.95 - 17.09), primigravida (OR, 2.7: CI 1.3-5.62), age group less than 30 years old (OR, 2.41; CJ 1.03-6.09) and living in urban area (OR, 2.33; CJ I.OJ - 6.47) have a higher risk to indulge in smoking behaviour. Muslim ( OR 0.29; CI 0.14 - 0.60) and Malay (OR 0.22; CI 0.10 - 0.47) pregnant mothers are noted to be less likely to snwke as compared to non Muslim and non Malay. More than 85% of them agreed with the tobacco control measures regardless of their smoking status. Most of respondents agreed the influential people in community such as medical personnel, teachers and parents should not smoke.


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How to Cite

Mohd Yusoff Hasim, Rokiah Mohd, Rafidah Md Noor, Azizah Abd. Manan, Abd. Jamil Ahmad, Munshi Abdullah, … Azmi Shapie. (2003). DO PREGNANT WOMEN IN PENANG SMOKE? : A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS ATTENDING PENANG GOVERNMENT HEALTH CLINIC IN THE YEAR 2002 . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 3(1), 36–41.