RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM10) AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SUNGEI SIPUT UTARA, PERAK

Authors

  • Abdul Mujid A Unit Kesihatan Persekitaran dan Pekerjaan, ]abatan Kesiliatan Komuniti, Fakulti Perubatan dan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.
  • Zailina H Unit Kesihatan Persekitaran dan Pekerjaan, ]abatan Kesiliatan Komuniti, Fakulti Perubatan dan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.
  • Juliana J Unit Kesihatan Persekitaran dan Pekerjaan, ]abatan Kesiliatan Komuniti, Fakulti Perubatan dan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.
  • Slwmsul Bahri MT Unit Kesihatan Persekitaran dan Pekerjaan, ]abatan Kesiliatan Komuniti, Fakulti Perubatan dan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.3/no.2/art.1304

Keywords:

lung functions, respirable particles ( PM 10), respiratory symptoms, quarry silica dust

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out on children who lived about 0.5 km from a quarry at Sungai Siput Utara, Perak Darul Ridzuan. The objective of this study was to find the association between PM10 air concentrations and the children's respiratory system. Fifty-one children who live near and exposed to quarry dust were selected while 3 7 children who live further away and were not exposed but live in the same district were chosen as a comparison in this study. Questionnaire interview were carried out on the parents to obtain the background information on their children and their respiratory history. Children's lung functions were measured by Pony Spirometer and the indoor PM 10 were measured with filter paper samplers attached to sampling pumps. The 24 hour indoor PMlO concentrations showed a significantly higher mean of 76.66 (g/m3 in the exposed areas than the comparative areas (41.55 (g/m3) with P= 0.01. The study also showed the lung function; FVC % predicted (t = -8.277, p = 0.01) and the exposed male children, their lung functions (FVC % predicted = 68.05, FEV 1 % predicted =73. 7) were significantly lower than the comparative group (FVC % predicted= 89.78, FEV1 % predicted= 86.97). The exposed female children's lung functions (FVC % predicted= 69.64, FEVl % predicted= 74.90) were also significantly lower than the comparative groups (FVC % predicted = 90 .99, FEV 1 % predicted = 87.78). The prevalence of abnormal FVC % predicted among exposed children was 82 .4% and the comparative children was 5 .4%. The prevalence of abnormal FEVl % predicted among the exposed children was 56. 9 % and the comparative children was 5. 4 % . There was an inverse correlation between the children's lung functions; FVC % predicted (r = -0.478, p = 0.01) and FEVI % predicted (r = -0.482, p = 0.01) with PMlO.concentrations. Respiratory symptoms such as phlegm ((2 = 15 .286, p = 0.01) and cough ((2 = 15 .399, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the exposed children than the comparative children. There was an inverse coii·elation between the children's lung function, FVC % predicted ( r= -0.529, p = 0.01) and FEVl % predicted ( r = -0.525, p = 0.01) with respiratory symptoms' score (r = -0.525, p = 0.01). From the results, it can be concluded that PM 10 affects the exposed children's respiratory system in te1m of the abnormality of their lung functions and also the increased of their respiratory symptoms.

References

1. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia. Laporan Tahw1an 1993 -1997. Kuala Lumpur ; Percetakan Kerajaan Malaysia, 1997.

2. Jabatan Alam Sekitar (Aktiviti Tersenarai) (Penilaian Kesan Alam Sekitar). Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Sains, Teknologi clan Alam Sekitar, Malaysia, 1989.

3. Tan KT. A review of dust contain in granite quarries. Sing Comm Health Bull 1979; 20: 34-39.

4. Murugan S. Kesan Partikel T ernafas (PM 10) T erhadap Fungsi Paru-paru Pekerja Kuari, Daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor. B.S. (Kesihatan Persekitaran clan Pekerjaan).
Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2000.

5. Juliana), Dayang AA, Jamal HH, Zailina H, Bilkis AZ. Pengaruh sumber pencemar dalaman terhadap penyakit respiratori clan fungsi paru-paru di kalangan kanak-kanak di Daerah Hulu Langat : Satu kaj ian awal. Jumal Kesihatan Masyarakat 2001; 2: 51-56.

6. Shprentz, D. Breath Taking : Premature Mortality Due to Particulate Air Pollution in 239 American Cities. Natural Resources Department, California, 1996.

7. Jamal H.H., Zailina H. and Azman Z.A. Relationship between visibility and selected air pollutants in the Klang Valley, August and

8. Jamal HH, Zailina H. Jerebu clan impak kesihatan: satu penilaian (Haze and its health impacts: an assessment). Bu le tin Kesihatan Masyarakat 1994; 1 ( 2): 1-11.

9. Jamal HH, Zailina H, Juliana}, SyarifHL, Ridzuan H. Respiratory functions of elementary school children exposed to the 1997 Kuala Lumpur Haze. Epidemiology 1998; (9)4: July Suppl. Vol. S103.

10. Zailina H, Juliana), Norzila MZ, Azizi HO,Jamal HH. The relationship between K. Lumpur haze and asthmatic attacks in children. Malaysian] Child Health 1997 9 (2): 151-159.

11. Zailina H, Juliana J, Azman ZA, Azizi 0. Perhubungan partikel terampai (PMl0) dengan pesakit asma. PERT ANIKA J Sci and Technol 1996; 4(2) :(275-82).

12. Azizi BHO, Henry RL. Effect of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. Pediatr Pu!mono! 1990; 9: 24-29.

13. Parkes WR. Occupational Lung Disorders. 3rd Ed. USA: Heinemann Publisher. pp. 111-114, 295-304. 1994.

14. Zainol AM. Pencemaran Udara oleh Debu Ternafas (PMl0) dan Hubungannya dengan Penyakit dan Fungsi Paru-Parn bagi Kanak-Kanak Sekolah Rendah Di Sekicar Kilang Simen. Sarjana Kesihatan Masyarakat. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1999.

15. American Thoracic Society. Recommended respiratory disease questionnaires for use with adults and children in epidemiological research. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 118:7-35.

16. Schlecht PC, O'Connor PF. Eds. (1994) NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(r)), 4th ed. National Institute of Safety and Health, USA, 1994.

17. Azizi BHO, Henry RL. Ethnic differences in normal spirometric lung function of Malaysian children. Respir Med 1994; 88:349-56

18. Miller WF, Scacci R, Gast LR. Laboratory Evaluation Pulmonary Function. J.B. Philadelphia: Uppincott Company, 1978.

19. Arividya M. Concentration of Indoor PM10 in Schools and at Homes and The Prevalence of Acute and Chronic Respiratory Symptoms Among Primary School Children in Serdang, Selangor. B.S. (Kesihatan Persekitaran clan Pekerjaan). Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2001.

20. Tsai FC, Smith KR, Vichit VN, Ostro BD, Chestnut LG, Kungskulnitt N. Indoor/Outdoor PMl0 and PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2000; 10: 15-26

21. Janssen NA, Hoek G, Harsserna H, Brunekreef B. Childhood exposure to PMl0 : relation between personal, classroom, and outdoor concentrations. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54(12): 888-94

22. Shamsul BMT. Paras Pendedahan kepada PMl0 clan Hubungannya dengan Simptom Masalah Pernafasan di Kalangan Pekerja Majlis Perbandaran PetalingJaya. Sarjana Sains Perubatan (Kesihatan Masyarakat). Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2002.

23. Backett and Taylor. Accessed from: http://www.biol.susx.ac.uk/home/Julain_thorpe/ semrp3. htm. 2002.

24. Kildeso J, Vallarino J, Spengler JD, Brightman SH, Scheinder T. Dust build-up on surfaces in the indoor environment. Atmos Environ 1999; 33: 699-707.

25. Ardiana N. Pendedahan Debu Kaea (PMI0) clan Kaitannya dengan Fungsi Paru-paru dan Simptom Respiratori Kronik di kalangan Pekerja Kilang Kaea. B.S. (Kesihatan Persekitaran clan Pekerjaan). Serdang : Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2001.

26. Zakira T. Simptom Paru-paru Kronik di kalangan Pekerja-pekerja Kilang Simen di Negeri Selangor. Sarjana Kesihatan Masyarakat. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1997.

27. Goren A, Hellmann S, Gabbay Y, Brenner S. Respiratory problems associated with exposure to airborne particles in the community. Arch Environ Heal.th 1999; 54(3 ): 165-171

28. Shahida M. Pendedahan Debu Kertas (PMI0) Dan Perhubungannya Dengan Fungsi Paru-paru Pekerja Di kilang Kertas Kitar Sernula Mentakap, Pahang. B. Sc. (Kesihatan Persekicaran dan Pekerjaan). Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2001.

29. West JB. Respiratory Physiology. 6th. ed. New York: Lippincott William & Wilkins, 1995.

30. Choudhury, Askar H. Gordian, Mary Ellen, Morris, Stephen S. Associations between respiratory illness and PMl0 air pollution. Arch Environ Health 1997; 52(2): 113-117

31. Janssen J, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Harsema H, Mens ink I, Zuidhof A. Personal sampling of particles in adults: Relationship among personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 14 7: 537-547

32. Ong SO. Studies on the respiratory health of primary school children in urban communities in Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 1991; 106: 121-135.

33. Dockery DW, Pope CA. Acute respiratory effect of particulate air pollution. Ann Rev Public Health 1994; 15: 107-32

34. Pope CA. Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PMl0 pollution and a mill, Utah Valley. Am] Public Health 1991; 79: 623-628.

35. Dockery DW, Sperzer FE, Stram DO, Ware JH, Spengler JD, Ferris BG. Effect of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139: 587-594.

36. Juliana J. Persekitaran Dan Serangan Asma Di kalangan Kanak-kanak Di Kuala Lumpur clan T erengganu. Master Sa ins (Kesihatan Persekitaran) Fakulti Perubatan clan Sains Kesihatan. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia, 1998.

37. Knobel H. Sudden infant death syndrome in relation to whether and optimetrically measured air pollution in Taiwan. Pediatrics 1995; 96: 1106-10.

Downloads

Published

2003-09-01

How to Cite

Abdul Mujid A, Zailina H, Juliana J, & Slwmsul Bahri MT. (2003). RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM10) AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SUNGEI SIPUT UTARA, PERAK . Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 3(2), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.3/no.2/art.1304