• Rampal L Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
  • Aziz SI School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
  • Razin A Kelantan State Department of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kata Bharu, Kelantan
  • Sanjay R Clinical Research Centre Hospital Kuala Lumpur



Smoking, peer influence, Kelantan


A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan state with the objectives to determine the prevalence of smoking in 2004 and to determine the relationship between smoking and age, sex, educational level, family and peer influence. All residents aged 15 years and above from all the selected households were included in this study. A standardized pre-tested structured questionnaire was used in this study. Out of 1025 respondents interviewed the prevalence of ever and current smokers was 34% and 25. 1 % respectively. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers was significandy higher in males as compared to females (p<0.001). The mean initiation age for the males current was 20.4 (95% CI = 19 .4-21.5) years with a range from 7 to 66 years. For the females the mean initiation age was 31 (95% CI= 26.8-35.2) years with a range from 15 to 64 years. The difference between the mean initiation age between male and females ever smokers was statistically significant (p<0 .0001). The overall mean duration of smoking was 23 . 9 years with a median of 23 years. It ranged from less than 1 year to 66 years. There was no significant difference between the mean duration of smoking between male and females current smokers (p =0.59). There was a significant association between current smoking status and education level (p<0 .01) and between smoking and peer influence ( p<0.01). There was no significant difference in smokers whose parents were smokers as compared to non--smokers whose parents were smokers. In conclusion, the prevalence of smoking in Kelantan state in 2004 is lower than the reported prevalence in 1996. However, it is still very high, especially in the males.


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How to Cite

Rampal L, Aziz SI, Razin A, & Sanjay R. (2004). SMOKING IN KELANTAN STATE, MALAYSIA HAS IT CHANGED SINCE THE NATIONAL SURVEY IN 1996?. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 4(2), 54–58.